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Bash function substitution

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If a process substitution is expanded as an argument to a function, expanded to an environment variable during calling of a function, or expanded to any assignment within a function, the process substitution will be held open for use by any command within the function or its callees, until the function in which it was set returns. If the same variable is set again within a callee, unless the new variable is local, the previous process substitution is closed and will be unavailable to the. Bash performs the expansion by executing command in a subshell environment and replacing the command substitution with the standard output of the command, with any trailing newlines deleted. Embedded newlines are not deleted, but they may be removed during word splitting This is known as command substitution. From the Bash documentation: Command substitution allows the output of a command to replace the command itself. Bash performs the expansion by executing command and replacing the command substitution with the standard output of the command, with any trailing newlines deleted. Embedded newlines are not deleted, but they may be removed during word splitting

Parameter substitution and/or expansion. # Function from days-between.sh example. # Strips leading zero(s) from argument passed. strip_leading_zero # Strip possible leading zero(s) { #+ from argument passed. return=${1#0} # The 1 refers to $1 -- passed arg. } # The 0 is what to remove from $1 -- strips zeros. Manfred Schwarb's more elaborate variation of the above: strip_leading. Do ls -l /bin/bash and check it's really bash and not sym-linked to some other shell. If you do have bash on your system, then you may be executing your script the wrong way like: ksh script.sh or sh script.sh (and your default shell is not bash). Since you have proper shebang, if you have bash ./script.sh or bash ./script.sh should be fine If I have a function: myfunction() { [ -d somedirectory ] && [ some other condition ] || { echo error >&2 ; exit 1; } global_var=somevalue } And I call it from within another . Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their. Functions in Bash Scripting are a great way to reuse code. In this section of our Bash scripting tutorial you'll learn how they work and what you can do with them. Think of a function as a small script within a script. It's a small chunk of code which you may call multiple times within your script. They are particularly useful if you have.

Bash functions, unlike functions in most programming languages do not allow you to return a value to the caller. When a bash function ends its return value is its status: zero for success, non-zero for failure. To return values, you can set a global variable with the result, or use command substitution, or you can pass in the name of a variable to use as the result variable. The examples below. Command substitution, in it's most simple form, replaces a command with it's output. Bash does this by running the command in a subshell and replacing the command with it's standard output (STDOUT), and removes any trailing newlines. Let's take a look at some examples. Here we will send the output of the date command into an echo string BashDefault value substitution. Example. ${parameter:-word} If parameter is unset or null, the expansion of word is substituted. Otherwise, the value of parameter is substituted. $ unset var$ echo ${var:-XX} # Parameter is unset -> expansion XX occursXX$ var= # Parameter is null -> expansion XX occurs$ echo. Return codes, Functions, and the number 255; Poetry in Code; Failing on Errors, whilst also Checking for Errors; Pattern Substitution; Sorting Files by Name; Editing a line in a text editor; The 'cp -t' command; Efficiently Pinging a Subnet; The strstr() function in bash; Giving Developers Root Access; Search and Replace within a Variabl #!/bin/bash function quit { exit } function hello { echo Hello! } hello quit echo foo Lines 2-4 contain the 'quit' function. Lines 5-7 contain the 'hello' function If you are not absolutely sure about what this script does, please try it!. Notice that a functions don't need to be declared in any specific order. When running the script you'll notice that first: the function 'hello' is called.

Process substitution [Bash Hackers Wiki

Bash can be used to perform some basic string manipulation. It is best to put these to use when the logic does not get overly complicated. In this post we will look at some useful and commmonly used string manipulation technques that should come in handy in our every day scripting tasks. Concatinate strings ; Delimit string with character; Delimit string with character and convert it into an. The function assigns the arguments to local variables for readability: the first becomes the counter variable (count), the second specifies duration (dur).Exit Status. Functions, like other Bash commands, return an exit status upon conclusion: 0 indicates success, any other small positive integer indicates failure Variables · Functions · Interpolation · Brace expansions · Loops · Conditional execution · Command substitution · One-page guide to Bash scripting . Devhints.io Edit; Bash scripting cheatsheet. Getting started Introduction. This is a quick reference to getting started with Bash scripting. Learn bash in y minutes (learnxinyminutes.com) Bash Guide (mywiki.wooledge.org) Example #!/usr/bin. If you use the command substitution in any other context, such as export DIRNAME=$ (dirname $FILE) or du $ (dirname $FILE), the lack of quotes will cause trouble if the result of the expansion contain whitespace or globbing characters. DIRNAME=$ (dirname $FILE) is the recommended way

Bash provides two implementation of substr function which are not identical:. Via expr function; a part of pattern matching operators in the form ${param:offset[:length}.; I recommend using the second one, as this is more compact notation and does not involves using external function expr.It also looks more modern, as if inspired by Python, although its origin has nothing to do with Python I've been working on a Bash script using an array. I keep getting this message, Bad substitution. So I Googled the problem and every example I came up with supposedly works but not on my computer. Here's a simple script that supposedly works. #!/bin/bash o=12345 a=o b=${!a} echo ${a} echo ${b} But when I run it, I get this.. # running above script $ bash helloJohn.sh Hello, John Doe If you don't modify the argument in any way, there is no need to copy it to a local variable - simply echo Hello, $1 . You can use $1 , $2 , $3 and so on to access the arguments inside the function We can define Bash functions in two ways: name compound-command [redirections] function name [()] compound-command [redirections] The function keyword can be omitted only if parentheses are present.. Alternatively, we can also omit the parentheses if we use the function keyword. The body can be any compound command, while redirections are also optional and performed when the function is executed

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Command Substitution (Bash Reference Manual

Bash functions are blocks of code that you can reuse them anywhere in your code. Anytime you want to use this block of code in your script, you simply type the function name given to it. We are going to talk about how to create your bash functions and how to use them in shell scripts. Table of Contents. 1 Creating a function; 2 Using functions; 3 Using the return command; 4 Using function. Vastly better than the accepted answer. In just 10% as much space, you managed to provide enough examples (one is plenty - nine is overkill to the point when you're just showing off), and you provided us with enough info to know that ((...)) is the key to using arithmetic in bash. I didn't realize that just looking at the accepted answer - I thought there was a weird set of rules about order. Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features from the Korn shell ksh and the C shell csh. It is intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools portion of the IEEE POSIX specification (IEEE Standard 1003.1). It offers functional improvements over sh for both interactive and programming use Unix & Linux: Providing Bash substitution as a function argument Helpful? Please support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/roelvandepaar With thanks & p.. Bash - Command substitution; Bash Shell and (Unix|Linux) Utilities (XCU) 151 pages Text Editing Flow statement (Control Structure) File System Process ; Alias (of a command) - Builtin command; Shell - && - AND Boolean operator; Apt (get) (Argument|Positional Parameter) How to pass arguments that have space in their values ? Arithmetic Expression (()) Array Variable; Auto-Completion; Back-tick.

Bash variables and command substitution - compci

Parameter Substitution - Linux Documentation Projec

Command substitution is the mechanism by which the shell performs a given set of commands and then substitutes their output in the place of the commands. Syntax. The command substitution is performed when a command is given as − `command` When performing the command substitution make sure that you use the backquote, not the single quote. - aren't familiar with Bash's process substitution. This answer IS for you, if you: - frequently use external CLIs (whether out of habit or due to lack of (good) PowerShell-native alternatives), especially while writing scripts. - are used to and appreciate what Bash's process substitution can do. - Update: Now that PowerShell is supported on Unix platforms too, this feature is of increasing.

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Bash Quick Substitution. February 16, 2020 February 16, 2020 Josh Reichardt Bash, Command Line, Linux, Productivity, Scripting, Sysadmin. Big Brain Time . One thing that I love about bash is that there is never a shortage of new tips and tricks to learn. I have been using bash for over 10 years now and just stumbled on this little trick. This one (as the title implies) allows you to quickly. Bash Split String - Often when working with string literals or message streams, we come across a necessity to split a string into tokens using a delimiter. The delimiter could be a single character or a string with multiple characters. In this tutorial, we shall learn how to split a string in bash shell scripting with a delimiter of single and multiple character lengths Bash supports process substitution using the <(command) and >(command) syntax, which substitutes the output of (or input to) a command where a filename is normally used. (This is implemented through /proc/fd/ unnamed pipes on systems that support that, or via temporary named pipes where necessary). When using the 'function' keyword, Bash function declarations are not compatible with Bourne. I have a bash shell variable called u = this is a test . How can I extract the test string and store into a shell variable? A substring is nothing but a string is a string that occurs in. For example 3382 is a substring of this is a 3382 test. One can extract the digits or given string using various methods

string - bash: Bad Substitution - Stack Overflo

Use functions in Scripts. Except for very small scripts (with a few lines of code), always remember to use functions to modularize your code and make scripts more readable and reusable. The syntax for writing functions is as follows: function check_root(){ command1; command2; } OR check_root(){ command1; command2; } For single line code, use termination characters after each command like this. Shell Functions. As programs get longer and more complex, they become more difficult to design, code, and maintain. As with any large endeavor, it is often useful to break a single, large task into a series of smaller tasks. In this lesson, we will begin to break our single monolithic script into a number of separate functions. To get familiar with this idea, let's consider the description of. bash - Unix, Linux Command - Bash is intended to be a conformant implementation of the Shell and Utilities portion of the IEEE POSIX specification (IEEE Standard 1003.1). Bash can be conf

Bash (auch BASH oder bash), die Bourne-again shell, ist eine freie Unix-Shell unter GPL.. Als Shell ist Bash eine Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle, die eine Umgebung (englisch environment) bereitstellt, in der zeilenweise Texteingaben und -ausgaben möglich sind. Letzteres erfolgt über die Befehlszeile, in die Befehle eingetippt und durch Betätigen der Eingabetaste eingegeben werden So far, you've seen how to write Linux bash scripts that do the job without user inputs. Today we will continue our series about Linux bash scripting. I recommend you review the previous posts if you want to know what we are talking about. Bash scripting basics. Bash scripting - For & while loops . Table of Contents. 1 Read parameters; 2 Check parameters; 3 Counting parameters; 4 Iterate. Parameter expansion is the substitution of a parameter by its value, which is to say, the syntax tells bash that you want to use the contents of the variable. After that, Bash may still perform additional manipulations on the result. This is a very important concept to grasp correctly, because it is very much unlike the way variables are. learnshell.org is a free interactive Shell tutorial for people who want to learn Shell, fast

bash - Error exit script from within command substitution

  1. Advanced BASH Exercises. by J. David Giese on January 01, 2016 BASH is the most widely-used and widely-supported shell for Linux. There are other shells that are better than BASH in various ways, but we feel that none of these other shells are better enough to warrant replacing BASH as the de-facto standard when writing user shell scripts. NetBSD and Debian use a stripped-down shell as the.
  2. bash 스크립트에서 'Bad substitution'오류가 발생했습니다. 0 내 bash 스크립트에서 $ {basename $ option}의 '$ option'이 스크립트의 뒷부분에 입력되는 'bad substitution'오류가 계속 발생합니다
  3. Description. eval evaluates all of its string arguments, concatenates them with a space, then evaluates that string and runs it as a command.. The strings provided to eval may contain reserved words.For example, they may contain loop keywords such as for..in, or conditionals such as if..then..elif.These are evaluated in a first pass, then the resulting string is then evaluated
  4. There are many different shells, including Bash, zsh, tcsh, and PowerShell. In this two-part blog post, I share some of the Bash one-liners I use to speed up my work and leave more time to drink coffee. In this initial post, I'll cover history, last arguments, working with files and directories, reading file contents, and Bash functions. In.

Functions - Bash Scripting Tutoria

Returning Values from Bash Functions Linux Journa

  1. Subject: bash: problem with for loop in process substitution with function. Date: Fri, 12 Jun 2009 17:49:44 +0200. Package: bash Version: 3.2-5 Severity: normal I may well be missing something, but this does not look normal to me: $ function mmmtest { echo $1; cat $1; } $ mmmtest <(for i in {1..3}; do echo K; done) /dev/fd/63 K $ I was expecting three rows with 'K'. This one works: $ mmmtest.
  2. Command substitution. Before we move on, we look at something called command substitution.In some cases we want to use the result of an executed command. It can be done in a number of ways and is provided in a subshell.We look at the recommended way
  3. Functions. To create a function in a Bash script, use the keyword function: function foo {# code here} Functions are useful for programmers because they help reduce redundancy in code. Less redundancy in code reduces the amount of maintenance required because if you need to change a value, you only have to find it once (in its function) rather than every time it's used. How Bash stacks up.

Description of problem: It is required to create fix for ol7 audit_rules_time_adjtimex rule which is expected to reuse existing rhel7 bash fix. audit_rules_time_adjtimex.sh implemented as custom scripts for rhel6 and rhel7 which just imp.. Firstly, bash's main function is replaced with a stub which calls Guile's main, which in turn calls the original bash entry point (shell.c:820). This is Guile's mechanism for initialising the system, giving Guile the opportunity to gain oversight and control of the run-time stack GNU for VMS GNV Provides a Framework for Porting Open Source Software to OpenVMS Brought to you by: billpedersen, hp-gnv-devlp, is01 In our bash introduction article, we learned that a shell-script file contains list of commands to be executed by the shell interpreter.In this article let us review about shell commands and its internals. A command is a sequence of words. The first word indicates the command to be executed and remaining words are passed as an arguments, where arguments could be the options or parameters to. Navigational History : Bash - Readonly Buitlin (Constant variable and function) Bash Shell and (Unix|Linux) Utilities (XCU) 151 pages Text Editing Flow statement (Control Structure

bash functions & command substitution. by guest1 » 2007-04-10 01:45 . From the Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide ( here) : Variables in a subshell are not visible outside the block of code in the subshell. They are not accessible to the parent process, to the shell that launched the subshell. These are, in effect, local variables. Try running example 20-1. guest1 . Top. 2 posts • Page 1 of 1. bash, ksh, tcsh, and zsh will also perform variable expansion on anything that starts with a dollar sign and looks like a variable before each display of the prompt. bash, ksh, and zsh will also perform command substitution before each display of the prompt when they encounter the $( ) syntax in the prompt. text effects and escapes. Autoload. Functions; 8. User Interface; If Statements! Decisions, decisions. Introduction. Bash if statements are very useful. In this section of our Bash Scripting Tutorial you will learn the ways you may use if statements in your Bash scripts to help automate tasks. If statements (and, closely related, case statements) allow us to make decisions in our Bash scripts. They allow us to decide whether or. Command Substitution From the discussion so far, we've seen two ways of getting values into variables: by assignment statements and by the user supplying them as command-line arguments (positional parameters). - Selection from Learning the bash Shell, Second Edition [Book

From the bash variables tutorial, you know that $(command) syntax is used for command substitution and it gives you the output of the command. The condition $(whoami) = 'root' will be true only if you are logged in as the root user Bash functions, unlike functions in most programming languages do not allow you to return a value to the caller. When a bash function ends its return value is its status: zero for success, non-zero for failure. To return values, you can set a global variable with the result, or use command substitution, or you can [ Command Substitution and Constants. In the previous lesson, we learned how to create variables and perform parameter expansions with them. In this lesson, we will extend this idea to show how we can substitute the results from commands. When we last left our script, it could create an HTML page that contained a few simple lines of text, including the host name of the machine which we obtained. Bash supports a surprising number of string manipulation operations. Unfortunately, these tools lack a unified focus. Some are a subset of parameter substitution, and others fall under the functionality of the UNIX expr command. This results in inconsistent command syntax and overlap of functionality, not to mention confusion

Since $@ is a kind of array, you can use bash's array expansion patterns with it. Either a space or parentheses must be included when using negative values, to avoid conflict with the default value parameter substitution bash$ touch .hidden-file bash$ ls -l total 10 -rw-r--r-- 1 bozo 4034 Jul 18 22:04 data1.addressbook -rw-r--r-- 1 bozo 4602 May 25 13:58 data1.addressbook.bak -rw-r--r-- 1 bozo 877 Dec 17 2000 employment.addressbook bash$ ls -al total 14 drwxrwxr-x 2 bozo bozo 1024 Aug 29 20:54 ./ drwx----- 52 bozo bozo 3072 Aug 29 20:51./ -rw-r--r-- 1 bozo bozo 4034 Jul 18 22:04 data1.addressbook -rw-r--r. only present when using the bash shell and not when using the standard Bourne shell. For example: ls ~barney will attempt to list the contents of the barney user's home directory In this Bash Tutorial, we will learn the syntax and usage of Bash Else If statement with example Bash Scripts. Bash Else If. Bash Else If is kind of an extension to Bash If Else statement. In Bash else-if, there can be multiple elif blocks with a boolean expression for each of them. If elif if ladder appears like a conditional ladder

Command Substitution for Bash Shell Scripting Beginners

In order to evaluate an expression on BASH, it needs to use the expr command. Arithmetic operation BASH requires to call expr a function to properly evaluate the result from the expression. Usin disabling for some third-party function calls - using subshells every time for that might be an overkill and then some of them do eval's. > By the way, if anyone has a more efficient way to create an associative array > like that other than that loop, I'd love to see it. Me too :) Thanks, Daniel. Sincerely, Nick Re: Command substitution and errexit: Nikolai Kondrashov: 10/16/12 12:30 AM: On 10. It can take some time to get used to command substitution, quoting variables, and remembering when to include the dollar sign. Before you hit Enter and execute a line of Bash commands, try it with echo in front of it. This way, you can make sure what's going to happen is what you want. You can also catch any mistakes you might have made in. When available, process substitution is performed simultaneously with parameter and variable expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion. In all the descriptions above, if the file descriptor number is omitted, and the first character of the redirection operator is '<', the redirection refers to the standard input (file descriptor 0)

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The dynamic_substitutions field, set to true in the above example, allows bash-style string operations to be interpreted. If your build is invoked by a trigger, the dynamic_substitutions field is always set to true and does not need to be specified in your build config file Bash is a command processor that typically runs in a text window where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can also read and execute commands from a file, called a shell script.Like all Unix shells, it supports filename globbing (wildcard matching), piping, here documents, command substitution, variables, and control structures for condition-testing and iteration Now you can access the array to get any word you desire or use the for loop in bash to print all the words one by one as I have done in the above script. Here's the output of the above script: Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Arch Fedora Method 2: Split string using tr command in Bash. This is the bash split string example using tr (translate) command The most significant difference, which will affect most scripts is how zsh treats word splitting in variable substitutions. Recap: bash behavior. In bash substituted variables are split on whitespace when the substitution is not quoted. To demonstrate, we will use a function that counts the number of arguments passed into it. This way we can see whether a variable was split or not: #!/bin/bash.

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Return is a bash builtin function that causes to update the exit status specified by n. Return is intended to be used only for signaling errors, not for returning the results of function. Articles Related Syntax return [n] If used: inside Bash How-to guides and examples Arguments Shell parameters Array variables Array Variables Variables Local and Environment variables functions Define Function Macros Permissions Allow or Deny actions Redirection Spooling to and from files Pipes Redirect the output from one command as input for another . Looping constructs: if-then-else Conditionally perform a command for Expand words, and. Substitutions are helpful for variables whose value isn't known until build time, or to re-use an existing build request with different variable values. Cloud Build provides built-in substitutions or you can define your own substitutions. Use substitutions in your build's steps and images to resolve their values at build time Bash Loops So far our backup script functions as expected and its usability has been substantially increased in comparison with the initial code introduced at the beginning of this scripting tutorial. We can now easily backup any user directory by pointing the script to user's home directory using positional parameters during the script's execution. The trouble only arises when we need to.

Bash - Default value substitution bash Tutoria

Top Forums Shell Programming and Scripting bash: combine arrays with weird substitution/references # Parameter substitution and/or expansion. The following expressions are the complement to the match in expr string operations (see Example 12-6 ). These particular ones are used mostly in parsing file path names Bash functions have return statement, but it only indicates a return status (zero for success and non-zero value for failure). function myfunc() { var= 'some text' echo Hello.. return 10 } myfunc echo Return value of previous function is $? Output: Hello.

Substituting strings within variables - Shell Scripting Tip

The following article describes the basic syntax and includes a simple example of the BASH CASE statement usage.. The CASE statement is the simplest form of the IF-THEN-ELSE statement in BASH.. You may use the CASE statement if you need the IF-THEN-ELSE statement with many ELIF elements.. With the BASH CASE statement you take some value once and then test it multiple times fish is a Unix shell that attempts to be more interactive and user-friendly than those with a longer history (i.e. most other Unix shells) or those formulated as function-compatible replacements for the aforementioned (e.g. zsh, the Falstad shell).The design goal of fish is to give the user a rich set of powerful features in a way that is easy to discover, remember, and use If `unset' is executed without option arguments, bash tries to unset a shell function if a name argument cannot be a shell variable name because it's not an identifier. n. The `test -N' operator uses nanosecond timestamp granularity if it's available. o. Bash posix mode now treats assignment statements preceding shell function definitions the same as in its default mode, since POSIX has. bash function with ssh. 0. pass command with stdout to a bash function. 363. Anyone else experiencing high rates of Linux server crashes during a leap second day? 2. Evaluation of backticks in bash . 0. Echo command, need substitution. Hot Network Questions Avoid Three Consecutive Hyphens How to play computer from a particular position on chess.com app Can a judge legally forbid a jury from. There is a lot that you can do with shellcheck to reduce the number of errors in your bash shell scripts and help you debug quickly. I will generally use explicitly the following syntax shellcheck -s bash -o all -xa <your_script> to get the benefit of all the possible recommendations (option -o all) and ensure sourced files are also checked (options -xa)

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BASH Programming - Introduction HOW-TO: Functions

Typically, when writing bash scripts, we use echo to print to the standard output.echo is a simple command but is limited in its capabilities. To have more control over the formatting of the output, use the printf command.. The printf command formats and prints its arguments, similar to the C printf() function.. printf Command #. printf is a shell builtin in Bash and in other popular shells. Some tasks, such as the Azure App Service Deploy task version 3 and later and the IIS Web App Deploy task, allow users to configure the package based on the environment specified. These tasks use msdeploy.exe, which supports the overriding of values in the web.config file with values from the parameters.xml file. However, file transforms and variable substitution are not confined to web app files You can use either the cut function or the Bash substring syntax to extract strings according to your needs. To learn more about the cut function specifically (which can also be used on files), check out its Wikipedia page here. unix,bash. About Scott Robinson. Twitter. Subscribe to our Newsletter . Get occassional tutorials, guides, and jobs in your inbox. No spam ever. Unsubscribe at any.

Bash Bad Substitution Syntax Error: Simple and Quick Fixe

• Using shell functions. Using Command Substitution. The bash shell allows you to use command substitution, which allows you to run a command and have its output pasted back on the command line as an argument for another command. Essentially, command substitution allows you to perform multiple tasks at once. Command substitution works by first creating a child process that runs the first. Functions. Bash can be hard to read and interpret. Using functions can greatly improve readability. Principles from Clean Code apply here. Apply the Single Responsibility Principle: a function does one thing. Don't mix levels of abstraction; Describe the usage of each function: number of arguments, return value, output; Declare variables with a meaningful name for positional parameters of. [bash] command line substitution with environmental variables. Tags. dynamic, eval command, shell scripts, variables. Page 1 of 2: 1: 2 > Thread Tools: Search this Thread : Top Forums Shell Programming and Scripting [bash] command line substitution with environmental variables # 1 03-06-2010 ASGR. Registered User. 58, 1. Join Date: Apr 2009. Last Activity: 11 January 2020, 6:26 AM EST. Posts. reporting the the bash-4.3 behavior (the longtime bash behavior) as a bug. Warning the user that bash discards some characters from the command substitution output seemed like the course that would let everyone know what's happening regardless of their expectations. Chet -- ``The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne.'' - Chauce Shell Functions Shell functions are a way to group commands for later execution using a single name for the group. They are executed just like a regular command. When the name of a shell function is used as a simple command name, the list of commands associated with that function name is executed. Shell functions are executed in the current shell context; no new process is created to.

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